HOW TO BUILD YOUR OWN SAUNA
Building of a sauna yourself is not as difficult process as it may seem to be at first. The really important thing to do primarily is to develop a well-defined, detailed plan. Finding of the store in advance where you can further purchase everything you will need for the construction is of no less importance. Thus, we will not only offer you the suitable products, but also give clear instructions on the construction of a sauna with minimal participation of third parties.
Firstly, having read this article, we recommend you to look through our Catalogue www.amilano.de and start stringing together a list of the good needed. To construct a sauna you will need:
- A Heater. Both electrical and wood-heated products of different models are available. Wood-heated designs can be already with a built-in boiler; however, it can also be bought separately. The electric stoves and the designs with steam generators are also in stock. We offer a large selection of manufacturers, models and other parameters: colors, power, size, shapes, etc.
- The Facing Material for the Sauna. You will need to choose lining (there are the options made from alder, aspen / thermos aspen), grating for the floor also.
- Additional Building Materials. This will include insulation, means for care and protection, fixing system, railings and trim components, some materials for decoration and everything for ventilation system.
- Shelves and Benches. In this category, the material and size of products is needed to be clearly spelt out also.
- Doors. When choosing them, consider the size (all the door variants are presented in our catalogue), the features of the glass (if it’s frosted or transparent), the color, the shape of the handle, the material of the door frame. We offer boxes made of aspen or alder.
- All Lighting Products. Firstly, you need to realize where you are going to place the lamps: on the walls, on the ceiling, within the shelves. In our Catalogue, you can find any lamps, lampshades, as well as the products for LED lighting, including a LED strip, as well as controllers, power supplies and much more other items.
- Accessories and Parts. Nowadays, it is hard to imagine a full-fledged sauna without stones, buckets, tubs, ladles. In addition, we can offer you thermometers, hourglasses, audio and video systems, special fragrances, body care products.
To help you navigate on the price and the upcoming expenses, simply add everything you need to the shopping basket. In such a way, to calculate the total amount will be more convenient for you.
Planning Your Sauna
When developing the layout, you need to solve several important issues at once. They are related to the next points:
- The amount of free space for every person. This parameter is needed for volume calculations of the future sauna: 2.5-3 to 3 m3 of space should be allocated to one potential visitor.
- The height. The optimal indicator for this parameter is 2.1-2.3 meters.
- Premises features. It can be located in both a separate building or in a residential building - a private house, or in an apartment, if space allows. It is really important that the room had the possibility of establishing high-quality ventilation, as well as a drain that provides divert water.
- Wall and ceiling construction materials. For these purposes, choose wooden boards and stone blocks. It is most convenient to cover the floor with tiles - it is easy to easy to look after, it is resistant to moisture, steam, temperature changes, and wears out slowly.
- Calculation of installation of doors. When planning the space, keep in mind that the door from the steam room opens out.
How to Choose the Right Heater
Probably, you are aware that a stove can be a wood-burning or an electric one. Spheres of use of the first version is a bit limited: this design is more suitable for individual premises, spacious private dwelling houses. For other cases, it is better to choose an electric heater. Herewith, please note its capacity, type of power supply (220 / 380V, 1/3 phase). Also, study the instructions of the model carefully - each page of a heater’s instruction contains a lot of useful applicable information. These include the recommendations on the volume of the steam room (minimum and maximum), on safe distances, allowable weight of stones, etc. If we are talking about a wood-burning stove, be sure to read all the requirements related to a chimney and consult a chimney sweep.
When one can't do without help of professionals
The installation of the stove (and in case of some doubts, there is a choice), as well as chimney and electrical wiring fixing, we strongly recommend to entrust to the professionals. These are the duties, the correct performance of which directly affects the safety of potential visitors of the sauna. Think in advance the technical equipment as well. Whether are going to use the remote control, video and audio equipment. In that case, the cables holes for the equipment will need to be done in both the insulation system, and in the wall lining.
Tips for Sauna Room Ventilation
The diagram shows such types of valves:
A1. Drain Valve. It is closed during firing-up period and visiting hours, but opens to dry up the room after use.
A2. Main Valve for the warm air discharge from the sauna. It must be opened when using the sauna.
B. Inlet Valve for forced (mechanical) ventilation.
C. Supply Air Valve for natural ventilation process.
The valves, indicated as B and C, are responsible for the supply of air saturated with oxygen from the street, and A1 and A2 - for the discharge of already heated air. Being placed in the opposite parts of the sauna, they ensure the correct circulation of warm and cold streams. This arrangement takes into account that air masses rise to the ceiling when heated, thus, the circulation is carried out in a circle: from bottom to top and back.
A proper organization of the ventilation system is one of the most important moments when building a sauna. If something goes wrong, you might run into a few problems at once:
- Constant moisture, which provokes the formation of fungi, mold, reproduction of a wide range of bacteria. Moreover, in the constantly wet environment, wood starts to deteriorate faster.
- Uneven warming or fast cooling of the sauna, which will negate all your efforts and financial investments.
- Hazardous conditions for the people who will be inside the sauna. At high temperatures and a lack of oxygen, visitors might start feeling ill. Meanwhile, any benefits for health or well-being under such circumstances are out of the question.
How to Avoid Negative Consequences
There are three major points that need your attention:
1. The types of valves for incoming air and the place of their installation. With natural ventilation system, the valve must be installed in the lower part of the stove, whereas with the mechanical one- above it (within the wall, or on the ceiling). Ideally, the entry of fresh air should come from the street itself, but not from the other premise. The pipe diameter should not be less than 5-10 cm.
2. The valves for air discharge from the sauna. These elements are usually installed as far as possible from the heater to ensure smooth air exchange. Ideally, if the opposite wall is chosen for this purpose, the installation height should be in the range from 25 to 40 centimeters from the floor then. The output pipe must be larger than the supply (input) pipe. They may be of the same dimensions if we are talking about 10sm diameter. For the air discharge, a telescopic tube (rectangular ventilation channel) is the most convenient to use.
3. The individual calculation of ventilation system elements, taking into account the model of the heater. In some cases, it is recommended to install a drainage valve also- from the output side, but under the ceiling.
It is really important to keep in mind that the ventilation system should be adjusted to the stove, so the first thing you need to decide on is the selection of the heater itself and consider its parameters, and then read the manufacturer’s recommendations and instructions. After that, you need to realize if these recommendations meet the characteristics of the premise. And only when everything has come together, start planning and implementing the ventilation.
Sauna Insulation: Features and Rules
Properly done insulation is an important point in the sauna construction. It helps to solve several problems at once:
- Maintain high temperatures for a long time, thereby saving money for heating materials.
- Prolong terms of life of the equipment. Since the temperature is kept up well and due to this, the heater works less frequently, its elements wear out over a longer period.
- Protect indoor materials from moisture. If the insulation is done properly, it does not get wet, thus, the closed parts of the sauna are not subject to dampness, fungi, mold, etc.
What's the Most Efficient Insulation System
The most effective, high-quality and easy-to-install solution is the finished thermal insulation panels. We recommend Kingspan SPU Sauna-Satu boards ("Satu").
Advantages and features of Satu boards mounting.
They already contain an aluminum layer that is securely attached to the surface. The panels are very easy to cut; they are characterized by their low weight and solidity, which is sufficient for comfortable operation. Using them, you can easily cope even in a small size room. Because of the light weight of the blocks, it is convenient to mount them both on the walls and on the ceiling.
Besides the presented advantages of these panels, we can add the following ones:
- Resistance to sauna temperature changes. They maintain a regular temperature of 100 degrees Celsius and even more.
- Double sided coating with aluminum material. This directly affects the following advantage.
- Resistance to moisture, mold and other negative factors.
- No shrinkage. Satu products retain their parameters throughout the whole lifetime of performance.
In order to take all these advantages, it is necessary to ensure the tightness of the joints in thermal insulation. The holes and sites where there is a bit lack of panel, it is necessary to fill with PU-foam. The joints of the plates are glued with a special (aluminum) tape.
Satu thermal heat insulation boards are mounted on the wall with PU-foam and fired pins. Before doing this, make holes for the cables - check the diagram several times in order not to miss anything.
Plinth foundation creation
Along the entire perimeter of the sauna, it is necessary to make a plinth base of 10–20 cm high. To do this, remove the foil on the bottom of the insulation. Further, a waterproofing grid is installed on the cleaned surface. When the composition dries out, the base plinth is covered with tiles. Since the wall lining is mounted only up to the plinth, the lower part of the wood will be protected from water ingress out of the floor.
Installation of the base (wall furring) for paneling
For the mounting of the base, it is necessary to choose a frame with dimensions: 18 x 45 mm - the pine version is optimal in terms of price and quality. This is when it comes to fixing the wall paneling. The bases under the shelves should be stronger and thicker. The materials with dimensions: 45 x 90 mm are suitable here.
The wall furring should be installed only up to the base plinth - it must be vertical, in increments of 50 cm. This position has been chosen so that the wall panel itself is fixed horizontally. If the wall panel is installed horizontally, and the lower parts begin to deteriorate over time, it is quite easy to replace several elements. When the same thing happens with the vertical furring, the renovation would be much harder.
For the wall-mounted stove, if you are looking just for a one like this, an additional base will be necessary to be installed. For this purpose, you should take a sheet of plywood of the appropriate size - so that later the equipment itself can be fixed to the screws.
How to Install Paneling
The lathing, which is already ready for the installation of the wall panel, performs the important functions. It ensures the availability of free space and high-quality ventilation system. Therefore, the material serves longer.
The correct choice of wood also contributes to a long service life. Experts recommend choosing wood that is slightly heated and does not secret a resin. The wall lining made of aspen, thermal aspen and alder will be an excellent solution for a steam room exactly for these indicators.
Basic Installation Rules
When starting the paneling, consider the following points:
You need to decide on the holes necessary for cables and communications immediately.
Then you should cover the ceiling.
Talking about the walls, the material should be put from the ceiling to the base.
When installing it is recommended to choose a laying of a tenon up - then water will not accumulate in the grooves, causing dampness and fungus.
For good air circulation, the upper part of the wall panel should not be fitted close to the ceiling. It is necessary to leave a gap of 3-5 millimeters. Usually, the wall lining is fixed with nails or clammers.
Optional equipment: what else may be needed for installation?
The first thing to do is to make the base for the shelves. They are mounted in the places, where re the 45 x 90 bars previously were installed. The standard height of the lower shelf is 60 centimeters, and the upper one is one meter. However, this height can be slightly adjusted for yourself - it is only important to leave the optimum distance from the shelf to the ceiling: 1.1-1.3 meters.
Next, you should consider the following tasks:
- Install the door trims.
- Mount a vent valve.
- Finish work on the lighting – put the lamps where they were previously intended to be placed. Do not forget that within a sauna you are allowed to use luminary and lamps, which withstand high temperatures. In addition, the luminary shall be leak-proof, protected from steam and moisture. It is better to choose dim low lights; however, it should be sufficient to control the operation of the stove.
- Plug in the audio speakers if they were planned.
Take care of the proper processing of wood - cover the walls and ceiling with a protective agent to prolong the life service of the material. Having done that, the room should be dried out thoroughly. Ensure good ventilation and do not start other works before the protective compound dries out.
Installation of Shelves: Choice of Materials and Sizes
For shelves and benches, it is recommended to focus on the following materials: aspen / thermal aspen, alder, abash. You should take the front board of the shelf already finished – a wide and rounded one. It is more comfortable and safe when using the seat. They simplify and accelerate the performance of modular structural elements - ready-made modules quickly fit on the frame.
What to consider when calculating the size of the shelf
With the high probability, several people will use the sauna at the same time. Imagine that people will be placed on the shelves in different positions: including lying and reclining. Bearing this in mind, you should consider free space.
The sufficient width of the top shelf for sitting and lying is at least 60 centimeters. It is necessary to make a back for support above it. The minimum width is 30 cm. The height of the placement depends on the average height of people visiting the sauna. If the height is very different for everyone, the back is placed about 20-25 cm from the upper shelf.
The bench is usually made using the same materials that are chosen for the shelves. A considerable height from the floor is 20-30 centimeters. The length of the bench, you should choose according to the free space and the size of a sauna.
All wooden surfaces from this category must be coated with protective compounds. They are used only after complete drying out and thorough ventilation of a sauna.
Wood Burning Sauna DIY Mounting: How to do it correctly
If you have chosen a wood-burning stove of this model, first consult with a chimney sweep. It is possible to heat such a stove only after permission of a specialist.
The installation itself and the connection of both wood-burning and electric stoves is also the task for the professionals. You are not allowed do this work yourself.
When the stove has been already installed, just follow the next simple instruction:
- Install an additional security fence - this is only necessary if there is a danger of accidentally touching the hot parts of the design. Also, take care of additional protection when planning to take children to a sauna.
- Start the first heating of the sauna heater, after good preparations of proper ventilation in the room. This action should be carried out in trial mode. During the first heating, all undesirable substances are burned and evaporated - residues of what was used during production.
- During the test operation of the stove, observe how the system copes with its functions. Whether the chimney works well, whether the system responds to automatically set indicators (if there is an automation system), whether there are any strange responses. If any sort of deviation from the norm are observed, contact the specialists for the second consultation.
When choosing a sauna stove, consider not only the recommended volumes of the sauna room itself and the dimensions of the heater. Other essential characteristics are the volume of the tank, the maximum weight of stones, as well as the weight of the stove (this is important for installation).
If you have any doubts or difficulties, consult a specialist. It is better to spend a little more time, but get a get a guaranteed high-quality result.
Categories : CONSTRUCTION OF A SAUNA